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Negotiation = 2 or more parties exchange goods or services & attempt to agree on the exchange rate for them.




Distributive Bargaining = zero-sum conditions; fixed pie; “I gain at your expense" (Builds animosity).


Integrative Bargaining =   one or more settlements exist that are win-win solutions need openness, trust, & flexibility.( preferred approach)



Issues in Negotiation


Personality traits


Cultural Differences

Decision-making biases


Personality   traits   have no significant   direct effect on the bargaining   process or   negotiation outcomes...therefore, concentrate on the issues &

situational factors, not the person.


Cultural   Differences are relevant to negotiating style:


North Americans ... try to persuade by relying on facts 7 logic. 

                       ... counter opponent’s arguments with objective facts.

                       ... make small concessions early in negotiations  ( to establish a relationship).

                       ... reciprocate opponents’ concessions.

                       ... treat deadlines as very important.

           Also cultural differences in lengths of silence, physical contact, & frequency of interrupting.

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conflict negotiation and intergroup behavior